Table of Contents, Spring 2020

BY DAVID ZAREFSKY

Photo by Markus Spiske on Unsplash / modifiedPhoto by Markus Spiske on Unsplash / modifiedOne way to understand America's polarized culture is to say that many conduct public dialogue as if they expected final victory. In this article adapted from a keynote presentation at the conference of the American Society for the History of Rhetoric, 2019, Dr. Zarefsky argues that we must build upon and extend the best of our rhetorical traditions to rehabilitate our unhealthy political culture.

BY ALI R. ZOHOORI

Photo by Armin Abbasi on Wikimedia CommonsPhoto by Armin Abbasi on Wikimedia CommonsAli R. Zohoori provides the historical influences on contemporary communication ethics and mass media in Iran. He discusses Iranian media professionals’ recent efforts to establish a professional code of media ethics and further argues for the creation of an international code of media ethics which promotes universal human solidarity.

BY MATTHEW P. MANCINO 

Photo by Nahel Abdul Hadi on UnsplashPhoto by Nahel Abdul Hadi on UnsplashMatthew P. Mancino articulates how the metaphors grounding cyberspace frame cyber attack response strategies and argues that greater communication ethics literacy can move us beyond the confines of the wall metaphor.

BY PETER LOGE 

The Epoch Times / CC-BY-2.0 / modifiedThe Epoch Times / CC-BY-2.0 / modifiedPeter Loge argues we urgently need to teach political communication ethics. Too often, he says, we do not help our students connect the mechanics of politics and persuasion with the ideals of justice or truth that politics is meant to advance.           

BY MICHAEL BUGEJA 

Image by Logan HotzImage by Logan HotzIn his media ethics class Michael Bugeja discusses the power of family mottoes to shape students' values and perceptions. Creating ethical heraldry sparks an introspective process for the class. When applied to media ethics, the heraldry project evokes a value-based coding system that enhances performance at home, school and work via a mental blueprint of the evolving conscience.

BY TOM COOPER 

Photo by javier trueba on UnsplashPhoto by javier trueba on UnsplashTeaching media ethics is invaluable in a world decrying fake news, invasion of privacy, press censorship, and more. While all approaches to ethics instruction are helpful, a United Nations initiative called Education for Justice (E4J), has been developing an ethics education curriculum step-by-step over the past three years.

PAGE TROTTER, JUSTIN PEHOSKI & SCOTT STROUD

Theatrical Poster / Warner Bros. / ModifiedTheatrical Poster / Warner Bros. / ModifiedThis case study examines how the makers of Richard Jewell took creative license by fictionalizing a real-life journalist, portraying her as trading sex for information. Is it possible for filmmakers to “go too far” in altering facts?

BY MICHAELA URBAN & DAKOTA PARK-OZEE 

..Is misinformation that helps with recovery from or prevention of environmental harm always an ethical ill? What ethical responsibilities, if any, do celebrities have to their followers when spreading information? This case study examines Leonardo DiCaprio using his Instagram account to blame the Amazon fires on Brazil’s President Jair Bolsonaro. 

BY JUSTIN PEHOSKI

Cover / Peter LangCover / Peter LangAs media technology and societal divides increase our communicative problems, we need more resources expanding on what ethical communication may look like. An Encyclopedia of Communication Ethics represents a welcome, timely companion to those thinking and teaching about how to create more ethical communicators.

Upcoming and past meetings, events, lectures, resources, and seminars related to media ethics are shared here. The announcements that follow are based on information supplied by the organizations involved or other sponsors. If you wish to have announcements of future meetings published in Media Ethics, please contact the editor at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

 

PTC 2020 REPORT

 

BY TOM COOPER

Many ethical questions pertaining to security, diversity, privacy, and regulation were posed and debated at the 42nd annual Pacific Telecommunications Council conference (PTC 2020) entitled “Vision 2020 and Beyond” held from January 18-22, 2020, in the Hilton Hawaiian Village Hotel in Honolulu. Over 2,530 professional communicators, lawyers, regulators, academics, and others from over 70 countries and territories participated to discuss topics regarding the economics, engineering, impact, policies, laws, and infrastructure of the information technology industries within the countries of the Pacific rim. Most topics (cf. issues) were discussed within the context of what was called “multiple concurrent technological and social revolutions” epitomized by the new multi-cloud environment.

Questions included, “Are cell phones hazardous to your health?” A few years ago the World Health Organization took a stand cautioning users against the possibility of brain damage. But what was the latest aggregate data on this issue as reported at PTC 2020?

Similarly, we have been advised not to build homes next to cell towers and power generators due to possible radiation poisoning or other dangers. But is there any wisdom in this advice? Gary Kim, an industry analyst and consultant to IP Carrier, took the position that, although there is no risk to humans from cell towers, cell phone radiation damage is possible and is a matter of phone distance from the head. When held against the brain, mobile phones still pose a risk and users should be cautious regarding both the length and number of calls, not just the proximity to the ear.

Other questions asked at PTC 2020 included, “Why should there be limited availability and high prices for broadband in rural and indigenous communities which restrict opportunities for their residents to participate in the digital economy?” “Should not allocation of the spectrum for new services such as 5G be governed by a framework that enables small, rural, and regional operators to invest in networks that support rural broadband?” And “why not make certain that new entrants and small providers be eligible to use spectrum for 5G services through spectrum sharing, micro licenses, or other means?” These were among the ethical issues raised by scholars. lawyers, regulators, and industry experts at the conference.

One panel which considered the “digital divide” questions posed above was entitled “The Gap Between Research, Policy, and Practice” which featured these speakers:

John Curran, President & CEO, American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN), USA (Moderator)

Anis Hamidati, Doctoral Student, Communication and Information Science, University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA (Presenter)

Heather Hudson, Professor Emerita and Affiliate Professor, University of San Francisco and University of Alaska Anchorage, USA (Presenter)

Ioane Koroivuki, Regional Director, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, International Telecommunication Union (ITU), Thailand (Presenter)

Rob McMahon, Associate Professor, University of Alberta, Canada (Presenter)

Muhammad Rashid Shafi, Chief Executive Officer & Director, Sync and Secure Technologies, Pakistan (Presenter)

Elizabeth Fife, Associate Professor, Technical Communication, Viterbi School of Engineering, University of Southern California, USA (Co-moderator)

Ayushi Tandon, Doctoral Student, Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, India (Co-moderator)

Another panel which addressed economic and resource discrepancies was entitled “Data Driven ICTS for Healthcare and Addressing the Digital Divide” and featured these speakers:

Zahirul Alam, Founder & Executive Director, Integrated Development Foundation, Bangladesh (Presenter)

Wayne Buente, Associate Professor, University of Hawaii, Manoa, USA (Presenter)

Christina Higa, Co-Director, Pacific Basin Telehealth Resource Center, SSRI, University of Hawaii, USA (Presenter)

Francis Pereira, Associate Professor, Marshall School of Business, University of Southern California, USA (Presenter)

Larry Martinez, Professor Emeritus, Dept. of Political Science, California State University, Long Beach, USA (Moderator)

A third panel emphasizing the need to overcome economic disparities took a more “green light” (problem-solving) approach for giving resources to the “have nots” and was entitled “Strategies to Empower Development: Improving Financial Opportunity and Equality for the Urban and Ultra-Poor.” The speakers were:

Nir Kshetri, Professor, University of North Carolina-Greensboro, USA (Presenter)

Hoan Nguyen, Doctoral Student & Graduate Fellow, University of Southern California, USA (Presenter)

Wonkyung Rhee, Assistant Professor, Center of Global Education and Discovery, Sophia University, Japan (Presenter)

Diana Rojas - Torres, Assistant Professor, Entrepreneurship & Innovation, Universidad de La Sabana, Colombia (Presenter)

Catherine Middleton, Interim Director, Ted Rogers School of Information Technology Management, Ryerson University, Canada (Moderator)

It is clear that in these discussions of “haves” and “have nots” that, whatever the beneficent intentions of some providers, challenges exist for island, remote, impoverished, and marginalized communities to keep up with the ongoing digital revolution. Ethically, questions arise about fairness, equal access, racial and gender discrimination, cultural imperialism, and justice in the increasingly digitally divided world.

One of the most important ethical topics of PTC 2020 pertained to the wisdom of diversity and inclusion in the telecommunication industry and related jobs and programs. Ethical issues of fairness, racism, gender equity, sexual orientation bias, and discrimination were highlighted in a panel entitled “Diversity and Inclusion as a Business Imperative and Strategic Asset.” The panel featured these speakers:

Gina Haspilaire, VP, OpenConnect Partner Engagement, Netflix, USA (Panelist)

Amy Marks, Chief Executive Officer, XSite Modular, USA (Panelist)

Tara Giunta, Partner, Paul Hastings LLP, USA (Moderator)

One aspect of diversity discussion is the emerging role of women to provide equal and substantial leadership in the worlds formerly—and still in some sectors—dominated by men. Tara Giunta arranged several events in which professional women could discuss important issues and network.

Each year the law firm Paul Hastings organizes a panel which focusses upon legal, policy, and ethical issues often moderated by Sherrese Smith. The presenters for 2020 were:

Mark Buell, Regional Vice President, Internet Society, USA (Panelist)

Andrew Erber, Associate, Paul Hastings LLP, USA (Panelist)

Rob Frieden, Pioneers Chair & Professor, Telecommunications and Law, Penn State University, USA (Panelist)

Sherrese Smith, Partner, Paul Hastings LLP, USA (Moderator)

One of the most important ethics debates—security vs. privacy—is often discussed at PTC. This year a major panel on cybersecurity was entitled “Cornerstone of Cybersecurity: Active Cybersecurity Information Sharing Powered by International ISACS” which offered these speakers:

Scott Algeier, Executive Director, IT-ISAC, USA (Panelist)

Nobuhiro Hikichi, Secretary General, ICT-ISAC, Japan (Panelist)

Seiji Ninomiya, Deputy Director-General for ICT R&D and Cybersecurity Policy, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC), Japan (Panelist)

Joseph Viens, Sr Director Govt. Affairs, Charter Communications, USA (Panelist)

David Villyard, Deputy Director, National Communications & Coordination Branch (NCC), CISA Integrated Operations Coordination Center, DHS, USA (Panelist)

Koji Nakao, Distinguished Researcher, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Japan (Moderator)

Tetsuo Yamakawa, Chairman, PTCJ, Japan (Moderator)

A second cybersecurity panel focused upon the Internet of Things and was entitled “IoT & Cybersecurity: New Challenges and Solutions.” These speakers provided their expertise:

Peter Coffee, VP for Strategic Research, Salesforce, USA (Panelist)

Lance Crosby, Chairman & CEO, StackPath, USA (Panelist)

Scott Shackelford, Chair, Indiana University-Bloomington Cybersecurity Program, USA (Panelist)

Tom Simpson, Chief Operating Officer, Cincinnati Bell Inc., USA (Moderator)

All of these issues have become far more complicated within an international context given the multitude of policies, cultural traditions, and governments, and the degree and scope of “consumer rights” in each country. Security and privacy have become huge concerns as witnessed by the scandals surrounding Facebook, Google, Equifax, and the hacking of the U.S. presidential elections.

The PTC program was committed to providing examples of “green light” (cf. “doing well by doing good”) ethics involving the pro-social humanitarian uses of technology, not just “red light” danger ethics issues such as invasion of privacy, disruption of security, e-fraud, and conflict of interest.

Further information about PTC 2020 and other PTC events and materials may be obtained at www.ptc.org, via e-mail at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., and by writing Pacific Telecommunications Council, 914 Coolidge Street, Honolulu, HI 96826-3085.

 

Resources for Teaching Ethics

A growing list of case studies suitable for use in media and communication ethics courses can be found at the Media Ethics Initiative website (here). The Media Ethics Initiative is based in the Center for Media Engagement in the Moody College of Communication at the University of Texas Austin.

 

EDITOR  
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Call for Manuscripts

Media Ethics welcomes submissions for publication in its forthcoming issues. Published online twice a year, Media Ethics is an independent, open-access, scholarly forum for the sharing of research and views on current topics in media ethics. Media Ethics takes a purposely broad and pluralistic view of media ethics, encompassing topics in journalism ethics, advertising ethics, digital ethics, computer ethics, organizational communication ethics, entertainment ethics, film ethics, as well as communication ethics in general. We also welcome submissions that explore ethical issues in an international context, or from the vantage point of other disciplines such as philosophy or technology studies. Media Ethics is interested in encouraging and sharing scholarly work on any important normative topic in communication or media. 

Media Ethics is a scholarly publication that was established in 1987 by Cliff Christians, Tom Cooper, Manny Paraschos, and Mike Kittross. It probes ethical issues in media, journalism, and communication ethics. It features creative and innovative pieces that showcase current scholarship or that analyze recent events, or shorter pieces that allow scholars to promptly voice their opinions on important topics in the current media environment. Media Ethics welcomes the submission of long and concise articles, book reviews, teaching commentaries, and case studies for possible publication. Media Ethics is published by the Moody College of Communication and the Center for Media Engagement at the University of Texas at Austin under the editorship of Dr. Scott R. Stroud.

Scholars are encouraged to submit long articles (up to 10,000 words) or short commentary pieces (750+ words) for consideration. All submitted manuscripts are subject to editing at the discretion of the editor, and publication is not guaranteed. Because of our editorial policies of independence and inclusion, neither the sponsors nor the editor shall be held responsible for any views expressed in Media Ethics by authors or others. All manuscripts, book reviews, case studies, and teaching pieces should be submitted via email to:

Dr. Scott R. Stroud, Media Ethics Editor

Department of Communication Studies

University of Texas at Austin

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Submissions will be considered at any time.

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